In Depth

New clues to the mysterious bee die off

February 24, 2012 | Author: Rebecca Riffkin, AAAS MemberCentral Associate Editor
Female phorid flies will land on a bee and pierces the bee's abdomen, allowing the fly to lay its eggs inside where they will feed on the bee and eventually kill it. (Photo: Christopher Quock/ San Francisco State University)

Possible reasons for what causes CCD vary widely, from virus infections, malnutrition, climate change and even electromagnetic interference from cell phones. But researchers today don't think any one of these is the cause; instead, different things are combining to hurt the honeybees.

"Its entirely possible that the cause is something that no one has thought of. But I think, at this point, the evidence does not back up any of these theories. But I like to keep an open mind because crazy things can happen with bees sometimes," says AAAS member Reed Johnson, assistant professor of entomology at Ohio State University, who studies drug interactions and diseases in bees.

Beehives today are commonly infected with Varroa destructor mites, a particularly nasty parasite that kills bees almost worldwide, as well as other viruses, bacteria, and fungal infections. Beekeepers also move their hives from state to state across the country, using their bees to pollinate different crops, and thus exposing the bees to countless other health problems. Johnson is researching the interactions between these different threats and the drugs used to protect bees. (Learn more about drug interactions and CCD in this blog post.)

Researchers think it is some combination of these factors that causes CCD, but haven't found a component that compels bees to leave their hives. That is why Hafernik's findings could be a crucial key.

Hafernik realized he needed to better understand the parasite to learn why the bees would abandon their hives and see if it could happen en masse as in CCD. In lab tests designed to discover how the bees got infected, he learned that a female fly lands on a honeybee's back and lays eggs inside the abdomen region. The bee, presumably a forager, doesn't seem to be affected at first; it continues to do its duties, flying in and out of the hive collecting nectar and spreading pollen. Then, sometime later, the infected bee wakes up in the middle of the night and flies out of its hive, never to return.

Watch flies infect a honey bee

Hafernik and his team are now hard at work learning other details about this parasite. He hopes to discover why the phorid fly parasite prompts bees to leave their hive, as this could be the key to understanding this symptom of CCD.

"If they abandon the hive when they are parasitized, is that because the parasite is somehow manipulating the bee?" Hafernik asked, "Or is it the bee somehow responding to having a parasite or a pathogen in it and leaving its hive in a sort of altruistic suicide to protect its hive mates? Might [the bee] have a similar behavior for other types of parasites, pathogens and other things [that we could] sort of tease together to see what produces the symptom and better understand colony collapse?"

Hafernik also wants to find out how widespread the infection is. Seventy-seven percent of the hives in the San Francisco Bay area were found to have phorid fly parasites, but Hafernik is working on ways to let citizen scientists test local hives in different parts of the country.

"I've been getting e-mails from all across the country of people reporting similar kinds of observations of bees at light, but whether these bees are actually parasitized by phorid flies, or it's there for other reasons, we don't know at this point," said Hafernik.

This fly has other effects on bee health as well. Tested bees that are infected with the phorid fly were found to have a myriad of other issues, from deformed wing virus to fungal infections, says AAAS member Andrew Core, one of Hafernik's former students and a coauthor on the paper. Core also won the Geraldine K. Lindsay Award for excellence in the natural sciences at the annual meeting of the Pacific Division of the AAAS for his presentation on the bee research.

While the fly may not cause CCD, it could be spreading some other pathogen that hurts bees in other ways. That's one of the issues with Varroa mites; they also carry a number of bee pathogens. Researchers keep finding things that hurt bees, but still don't know what is causing the disorder. Chance and a keen observation are how Hafernik and his team found this parasitic fly, and those same tools may be how we find a way to stop CCD.

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